Below I describe current and past strands of my research program.

universals and variation in the evidential domain

Evidentials are expressions that encode the source of semantically determined information for an utterance, such as English reportedly or allegedly. Over the years, I have worked on grammatical evidentials in several languages (Bulgarian, Georgian, German, Turkish).

An ongoing debate in this area concerns the relation between evidentiality and epistemic modality. According to one line of research, evidentials are garden variety epistemic modals. According to another, evidentials interact with the structure of speech acts. By discussing analytical options proposed for evidentials, I show that the debate is lacking formally-explicit tools that would differentiate between the two classes. Current theories, even though motivated by superficially different data, make in fact very similar predictions. I reduce the cases of apparent semantic variation to factors independent from evidentiality, such as the syntax of clausal complementation, and show that these cases do not resolve the modal-illocutionary debate.

Based on data from a range of languages, I argue that evidentials have a unified semantics of first-person mental states. Drawing on philosophical research on self-knowledge, I further argue that some linguistic properties of evidentials are rooted in the non-linguistic properties of the cognitive processes they describe, and show that it explains in a uniform fashion the behavior of evidentials across enviornments.

Currently I am also interested in constructions dealing with evidence more generally, and am co-editing a special issue of the Journal of Pragmatics devoted to evidence in language (with Corien Bary).

  • In prep. The subjective heart of evidentiality.
  • Under review. N. Korotkova. Theories of evidential meaning: Taking stock. Journal of Pragmatics.
  • 2020. N. Korotkova. Indexical shift and interrogative flip are distinct phenomena. Snippets. [paper]
  • 2020. "The notional category of evidentiality". Invited class at the Web Summer School for Logic, Language, and Information (WESSLLI), a virtual school organized by the Brandeis University; in lieu of NASSLLI, moved to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [class page]
  • 2020. Evidential meaning and (not-)at-issueness. Semantics & Pragmatics 13(4). [paper]
  • 2019.The embedding puzzle: Constraints on evidentials in complement clauses. Linguistic Inquiry. [paper]
  • 2017. Evidentials and (relayed) speech acts: Hearsay as quotation. S. D'Antonio, M. Moroney, and C.R. Little (eds.), Semantics and Linguistic Theory 25, 676–694. [paper]
  • 2016. Disagreement with evidentials: A call for subjectivity. J. Hunter, M. Simons and M. Stone (Eds.), JerSem: The 20th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, 65-75. [paper]
  • 2016. Heterogeneity and universality in the evidential domain. UCLA dissertation; superseded by later publications. [dissertation]
  • 2015. Evidentials in attitudes: do's and dont's. E. Csipak and H. Zeijlstra (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 19, 340–357. [paper]

  • semantics and metasemantics of taste

    My joint work with Pranav Anand (UC Santa Cruz) focuses on the semantics and metasemantics of taste. It explores linguistic and non-linguistic properties of predicates of personal taste (e.g. delicious) and other subjective expressions (e.g. delightful). Recent work in formal semantics and philosophy of language shows that linguistic behavior of PPTs differs from that of other predicates, like round or popular, both in grammatical distribution and conversational dynamics: for example, disagreements over tastiness are seen as matters of opinion, not fact. We aim to determine whether PPTs form a natural class across languages and conceptual domains, and whether other predicates involving judgment -- aesthetic, moral, value -- also are PPTs. The overarching goal is to understand how natural language conceptualizes taste and what makes PPTs special: the semantics, the pragmatics, or the epistemology and psychology of taste. To explore this broader issue, we look at a series of less-studied puzzles and compare PPTs with other taste ascriptions (e.g. to like).

    Our work is fully collaborative and the contributions of both authors are equal. The order of authors in published work rotates from publication to publication.

  • 2021. N. Korotkova & P. Anand. "Find, must, and conflicting evidence". Sinn und Bedeutung 25. [paper]
  • 2021. P. Anand & N. Korotkova. "How to theorize about subjective meaning: A lesson from de re". Linguistics and Philosophy [paper]
  • July 2021. "An opinionated guide to the language of opinion". Class at the 32nd European Summer School in Language, Logic and Information (ESSLLI), organzied by Utrecht University. [online]
  • 2019. "Refining find". Talk at the workshop "Evaluative language", Ecole Normale Supriéure, Paris.
  • 2018. P. Anand & N. Korotkova. "Acquaintance content and obviation". Uli Sauerland and Stephanie Solt (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 22, ZAS, Berlin. [paper]
  • 2018. "An opinionated guide to predicates of personal taste". Class at NASSLLI 2018, Carnegie Mellon University. Materials available upon request.

  • non-canonical interrogatives across slavic

    Slavic languages show great propensity for non-canonical interrogatives, whose primary goal is not a naive inquiry for information but a different pragmatic function. In the past, I have worked on constructions consisting of two interrogative clauses, a clause with the fronted wh-adverbial ('what' or 'how') and a wh-clause with a fronted wh-phrase, which have been previously analyzed as an instance of wh-scope marking and which I have argued are interrogative parentheticals. Currently I am exploring biased questions in across Slavic. Questions with espitemic bias, which are used to confirm or rejct an idea the speaker has, have attracted a lot of attention in the recent literature. However, with few exceptions, much of the work in this area has been conducted on the material of English, German and French. Cross-linguistic research is pivotal for semantics and pragmatics, and in this strand, I seek to redress this empirical gap by looking at discourse particles associated with question bias across Slavic.

  • In prep. Biased questions across Slavic. B. Gehrke and R. Simik (eds.), The Semantics of Slavic Languages. Language Science Press.
  • 2013. "How do you think? Apparent wh-scope marking in Russian". Talk at the workshop "Parenthesis and ellipsis: Cross-linguistic and theoretical perspectives" during the 35th meeting of DGfS, University of Potsdam. [slides]
  • 2012. "On alleged wh-scope marking in Russian". Proceedings of WCCFL 30, pp.205-215. [paper]

  • evidential perfects

    Evidentiality often clusters in certain regions, and where it does, it has a dominant morphosyntactic form, e.g. most evidentials of Western Europe are modal auxiliaries. Another frequent make-up is (present) perfect morphology, referred to as "Perfect of evidentiality". It happens to encode some sort of evidentiality all over the globe: Dogon, Newari, Scandinavian languages, Spanish of La Paz, Northern Ostyak, Komi Zyryan. The highest concentration of the perfect-evidential overlap is found in the Balkan-Caucasus region, sometimes referred to as the Old World evidential belt, including but not limited to Balkan Sprachbund. Most famously described for Turkish as well as other Turkic languages, it in fact pervades the area and is a feature of the following languages: Balkan Romance: Aromanian, Daco Romanian, Megleno Romanian; Iranian: Farsi, Ishkashim, Tajik; Kartvelian: Georgian; Indo-Aryan: Romani; South Slavic: Bulgarian, Macedonian; Daghestanian: Agul, Archi, Bagvalal, Dargwa, Hunzib; Indo-European isolates: Eastern Armenian and Albanian.

    Such perfects express interesting commonalities: (1) they express indirect evidentiality and are often analysed as two accidentaly homophonous markers, conjectural and reportative and (2) they encode non-trivial temporal relations between the speech situation and the situation of evidence acquisition.

    I've done fieldwork on Georgian, which shows interesting (dis)similiarities with Turkish and Bulgarian both in the evidential domain and interaction of evidentiality with tense and aspect. I'm not actively working on the topic but am still interested in the nature, historic development and georgraphic distribution of the perfect-evidential overlap and in how to derive the meaning of indirect evidentiality without postulating accidental homophony.

  • In prep. Evidentiality in the Georgian tense and aspect system.
  • 2012. ``Evidentiality in the Georgian tense and aspect system''. UCLA. [slides]
  • 2012. "How perfect is the perfect of evidentiality: Evidence from Georgian". Talk at The Nature of Evidentiality, Leiden University, Netherlands. [abstract] [slides]

  • polysynthetic morphology

    Adyghe is a Northwest Caucasian language, spoken mostly in the Caucasus. I'm proud to have participated in a series of fieldwork trips to the national republic Adyghea organised and funded by the Russian State University for the Humanities in 2004-2010. Such trips, or expeditions, are a hallmark of Russian typological tradition, largely thanks to the efforts of late A.E. Kibrik. Instead of bringing a consultant to the classroom, which is a common practice for the Field Methods in the U.S., a group of people goes into the field to work on a language. In such a setting, one gets acquainted not only with the language itself, but also with the culture of its speakers, which is an essential part of being a fieldworker. Theoretical research is combined with the language documentation component, including, as the ultimate goal, writing a reference grammar with a significant amount of elicited texts. It's in these expeditions where I got the training I have now.

    Adyghe is a polysynthetic language with complex and fascinating morphological patterns. Over the years, I have mainly worked on the tense and aspect system, and constraints on affix ordering. I have been investigating semantics of various tense and aspect suffixes, whose inventory in Adyghe goes beyond the familiar and includes things like 'pretend that p'. In particular, I was working on the so-called double past, which led me to the exploration of semantic typology of pluperfects, their non-temporal values and possible application of inertia worlds apparatus in this domain.

    In my own work and in joint work with Yury Lander (Higher School of Economics, Moscow), I showed that Adyghe affix ordering is compositional in the suffix domain and templatic in the prefix domain.

    In 2009, I contributed to the collection of papers (in Russian) that serves as a basis for a theoretically-informed reference grammar of Adyghe, and currently I am not working on this.

  • 2010. Affix ordering in polysynthesis: Evidence from Adyghe (with Y. Lander). Morphology 20(2): 229-319. [paper]
  • 2009. Proshloe i "sverxproshloe v adygejskom jazyke [The past and the "superpast" in Adyghe. In Russian]. In Y. Testelets (ed.), Aspects of Polysynthesis: Essays on the Adyghe grammar, 262–286. Moscow: RGGU.
  • 2006. O pokazatele refaktiva -ʒ'ə- v adygejskom jazyke [On the refactive marker -ʒ'ə- in Adyghe. In Russian]. In Field Studies of RGGU students. Ethnological, folklore, and linguistic studies 1, 180-183. Moscow: RGGU.